Underground pipes divert water from cropland, reducing stress on plants. A box diverts water flow into the buffer, increasing the shallow groundwater level and nutrient removal. This is a saturated buffer.
Saturated bufferzones. Iowa State University. Extension and Outreach. Tom Isenhart, Dan Jaynes.
Saturated Buffers for the Midwest. Tom Isenhart, Dan Jaynes, Ben Reinhart, Chris Hay, Stephen Jacquemin, Jeppe Kjaersgaard, Kelly Nelson, Nathan Utt